Low back pain is a widespread health issue in Japan. Remarkably, 83% of the population suffers from it at least once in their lifetime. Of these instances, 75% have recognizable causes, yet 22% are categorized as nonspecific low back pain. This latter type often originates from a range of factors, including psychosocial challenges and insufficient physical activity. In response, Japan has established "Pain Centers" in medical facilities. These centers boast interdisciplinary teams from fields such as orthopedic surgery, anesthesiology, psychiatry, and rehabilitation. Their chief treatment modalities include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), physical therapy (PT), and conventional medication. Although both CBT and PT have shown some effectiveness, their pain-alleviating outcomes can be temporary or minimal.
Recently, there's been growing attention towards neurofeedback, particularly the use of alpha brain waves, as a potential alternative treatment. This innovative technology permits the real-time monitoring and adjustment of brain activity, harnessing signals from tools like fMRI and EEG. Current research suggests a link between the reduction in alpha and beta wave activity and the severity of pain. Such findings position alpha brain wave neurofeedback as a promising solution for chronic pain. A crucial study was undertaken to assess the impact of combining alpha-wave neurofeedback with traditional treatments. The results indicated that early-stage treatments were notably more effective than later interventions. Furthermore, the synergy of CBT and neurofeedback yielded pronounced pain reduction. This integrated method proves more successful, possibly due to fostering a heightened sense of self-efficacy in pain management and the proactive aspect of neurofeedback, granting patients greater autonomy over their discomfort. Given its suitability for domestic application, neurofeedback could enhance its therapeutic benefits even further. Highlighting the value of early treatment, the study accentuates the need for therapies that holistically account for the patient's psychosocial circumstances and the duration of their pain.